European Bison Conservation Newsletter <div class="FFpbKc"> <div class="FFpbKc"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" style="font-size: 0.875rem;" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="0" data-number-of-phrases="4"><span class="Q4iAWc"><strong>European Bison Conservation Newsletter (Żubr i jego ochrona Biuletyn)</strong> is a scientific journal published by the European Bison Friends Society.</span></span> <span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" style="font-size: 0.875rem;" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="1" data-number-of-phrases="4"><span class="Q4iAWc">The first issue of the Bulletin was published in 2008.</span></span></div> <div class="FFpbKc"> </div> <div class="FFpbKc"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" style="font-size: 0.875rem;" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="pl" data-phrase-index="3" data-number-of-phrases="4"><span class="Q4iAWc">The journal publishes three types of articles </span></span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">on the genus</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </span><em style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Bison:</em><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> scientific articles (</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"><em>peer-reviewed</em>), short communucations (<em>peer-reviewed</em>)</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;"> </span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">and popular science articles (</span><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">non-peer-reviewed).</span></div> </div> <div class="FFpbKc"> </div> <div class="FFpbKc"> <p><strong>Published content is organized by the following categories:</strong><br /><a href="">EUROPEAN BISON (WISENT)</a> / <a href="">AMERICAN BISON</a> / <a href="">GENETICS</a> / <a href="">VETERINARY</a> / <a href="">BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY</a> / <a href=""><em>EX SITU</em> CONSERVATION</a> /<a href=""> <em>IN SITU</em> CONSERVATION</a> / <a href="">CULTURE AND EDUCATION</a></p> <p>ISSN 2450-1735</p> </div> Stowarzyszenie Miłośników Żubrów en-US European Bison Conservation Newsletter 2450-1735 History, current state and perspectives of conservation of European bison in Ukraine <p>The reasons for sudden decline of the Ukrainian population of the European bison (<em>Bison bonasus</em> L.) were analyzed on the basis of historical data and current information. Described are the present status of E. bison population in Ukraine and breeding activities in zoos. Proposed are measures necessary to restore the population of this species in the country.&nbsp;</p> Iwan Parnikoza Vladimir Boreiko Vladimir Sesin Maryna Kaliuzhna Copyright (c) 2009 Iwan Parnikoza, Vladimir Boreiko, Vladimir Sesin, Maryna Kaliuzhna 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 5 16 Formation of Borisov-Berezinsky European bison population and its present state <p>A review of the history of creation of European bison population (<em>Bison bonasus bonasus</em>) in the vicinity of the Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve is presented. Described are the population dynamics, birth and death rates. Presented are datas on the formation of the spatial structure of this population and seasonal migrations of the bison. The prospects for further existence of Borisov population, and measures necessary for its maintenance are evaluated.</p> Alexander Kashtalian Copyright (c) 2009 Alexander Kashtalian 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 17 29 The European bison (Bison bonasus l.) population status in theWestern region of Ukraine <p>Restitution of the European bison in the Western region of Ukraine began in the second half of the 20th century. For the period from 1965 to 1982 the European bison were brought to 5 regions. To the Volyn region, 15 individuals were brought from the Byelovezskaja Pushcha (Byelorussia) in 1965. The highest population number (approximately 200 individuals) the herd reached at the beginning of the 1990s. Since 1992 population is on decrease. During the period between 1992 and 2003, 28 individuals died from various reasons. There have been registered bison migrations outside their home ranges on a distance of 40 – 45 km, and the poaching. Trophy hunting was organised for foreign hunters. During 1991–1999 foreigners bagged there in total 29 European bison. As of 2009 the population is estimated on 15–20 individuals. There are two populations of the European bison in the Lwow region: one in the mountain part, other – in the lowlands. Ten wisents captured from Byelovezskaja Pushcha were brought to the mountain part in 1965. The mountain population in mid of the 1990s counted over 30 individuals. Existence of this group is threatened because of considerable decrease of the number. To improve the situation, this herd will be supplemented with genetically selected animals, imported from abroad this June, which after the acclimatisation period will be released to the wild. To the lowland part of the oblast the European bison 6 individuals were brought from Lithuania in 1980. Unfortunately, those animals reproduced badly, there some single individuals migrated to the territory of the nearby Rivne and Ternopil regions. At the beginning of 21st century remained there only 6–8 individuals. With the purpose of population renewal during 2008–2009 new animals were brought from the Vinnytsia region. As of June 2009 this population counts approximately 25 individuals. To the Rivne region, 8 individuals were brought from Belavezskaya Pushcha in 1967. This population ceased to exist in 1978. In 1970 to the hunting grounds of the Tchernivtsi oblast 19 European bison were brought from Berezinskoy (Byelorussia), Okskoy and Prioksko-Terrasny (Russia) preserves. In 1994–1995 this population reached its highest numbers – near 225 individuals. However, since 1996 it decreased to about 70 individuals in 2009.&nbsp;</p> Pawlo Khoyetskyy Copyright (c) 2009 Pawlo Khoyetskyy 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 30 33 Management of Wisent population within a Natura 2000 site <p>Wisents in Bieszczady Mountains live mostly outside of national park, so their conservation has to be compromised with forest management plans within newly established Natura 2000 site. Analysis of seasonal and annual variability of wisent concentration sites, identified as areas with 50% probability of animals’ presence, allowed to indicate most frequented parts of wisents’ home range. Through a comparison of those areas with current<br />forest management plan, selected were forest compartments that are not scheduled for logging or major forest works until the end of the validity of this forest management plan. The joint area of those compartments was approved by the Regional Directorate of State Forests as wisent refuges divided into two zones: (1) a zone for the habitat improvement for wisents, and (2) a zone of particular protection. Additionally, in forest compartments situated within seasonal<br />migration corridors ensured will be the continuity of ecosystems. Bieszczady are the first Natura 2000 site having officially approved refuges for a large mammal.</p> Kajetan Perzanowski Maciej Janszczak Aleksandra Wołoszyn-Gałęza Copyright (c) 2009 Kajetan Perzanowski, Maciej Januszczak, Aleksandra Wołoszyn-Gałęza 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 34 39 The using of new areas for free-ranging group of European bison (Bison bonasus) in European Russia <p>Formation of free-ranging European bison populations is an important object in preserving this species. Such problems as using the area and space use when establishing new free-ranging groups deserve special attention as a part of creation free-ranging European bison population. This paper includes the results of European bison space use monitoring during establishing free-ranging group in Kaluzhskie Zaseki Nature Reserve, Russia. The analysis includes data collected during the period between 2004 and 2007. The main method of data acquisition is mapping of tracks and traces of vital activity along fixed routes. The herd under observation included 30 animals at the end of the research period. In 2001 the herd was let out<br>in Orlovskoe Polesie National Park and came to Kaluzhskie Zaseki Nature Reserve. In 2004 European bison had occupied almost the entire woodland of southern part of the reserve. In snowy period the entire herd keeps close to the feeding site. In snowless period adult males separate from female part of the herd. Since 2005 groups of cows and calves have a well-defined<br>seasonal cycle of space usage.&nbsp;</p> M. Chistopolova J.A. Hernandez-Blanco E. Litvinova Copyright (c) 2009 M. Chistopolova, J.A. Hernandez-Blanco, E. Litvinova 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 40 46 Primary search of woodlands suitable for free ranging Bison bonasus populations in Ukraine <p>Since 1990, Ukrainian population of European bison (Bison bonasus L.) has diminished three-folds. Presently the problem began to attract due attention, and restoration of bison became a priority in national environmental policy. Taking into account optimal habitat size, we used GIS Arc/Info 8.1 to screen Ukrainian and adjacent woodlands for territories where<br>subpopulations of the species could exist in regard to forests’ sizes and densities of settlements and roads. Several other parameters were also included in the study. We found 4 inland and 6 transboundary territories, fit for maintaining a hundred bison each, and 3 transboundary territories with carrying capacity about 1000 heads each. A thorough environmental assessment is required to determine which of these areas are suitable for developing or creating new bison populations.</p> Ivan Parnikoza Maryna Kaluzhna Copyright (c) 2022 Ivan Parnikoza, Maryna Kaluzhna 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 47 53 The changes of founders’ number and their contribution to the European bison population during 80 years of species’ restitution <p>The aim of this paper is to clarify the genetic structure of European bison Bison bonasus after species bottleneck. When in 1924 the restitution process has been started there were only 54 individuals (29 males and 25 females) with proven genetic purity. The pedigree of this group was analyzed and it was stated that 28 animals with unknown parents can be counted as species founders. This large group of founders can be divided into two parts; one consisted of 17 individuals carefully diagnosed by Slatis (1960) and 11 others not represented in current European bison population. The contribution of those lost ancestors at the beginning of restitution was equal to 26,9%. Large part of those losses was due to termination of European<br>bison breeding at Woburn of unknown reason. The analysis explained also tremendous changes in founder’s contribution since the beginning of E. bison restitution.&nbsp;</p> Wanda Olech Copyright (c) 2022 Wanda Olech 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 54 60 Parameters of a founder group and long term viability of a newly created European bison populations <p>Abstract: Simulations of the European bison population development were carried out according to scenarios that included various characteristics of a founder group: size (N = 6; 10; 20; 30), age (calves versus sexually mature individuals), and females: males ratio (1:1, 2:1, 4:1). Introduction was simulated as a single event or a series of supplementations. Probability of population extinction, level of heterozygosity and the percentage of alleles retained in the extant populations, as well as the mean population growth rate were analysed at the end of 100-year period of population development. The results led to the following conclusions that may help to keep the level of genetic variability of created populations in the long term as high as possible:&nbsp;<br>1. The total number of founders should not be lower than 10 individuals; females : males ratio among founders is suggested to be 2:1 or higher. Founders should be selected on the basis of their pedigrees.<br>2. The new herds should be established in areas with possibly the highest carrying capacity. If the carrying capacity is low, the better solution would be to establish a new herd as a part of a meta-population or release bison in several stages with regular supplementations.<br>3. Supplementations with females or individuals of both sexes seem to be more favourable for population viability than supplementations with males only.<br><br></p> Katarzyna Daleszczyk Copyright (c) 2009 Katarzyna Daleszczyk 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 61 72 The sex and age-related characteristic and the analysis of the natural reasons of death of European bison (Bison bonasus L.) in the breeding station of the Oksky reserve <p>The author has analyzed reports of dissecting carcasses of animals and certificates on deaths of 128 bison from 1960 to 2008. The highest death rate is observed among bison being about one year old (57%). Themortality rate within a year occurs unevenly. In summer, autumn and winter there is an increase of this factor. Causes of animals’ death in the breeding station have been classified according to the groups: traumas, diseases of different organs, invasion and infectious diseases. The main cause of animals’ death are traumas – 43.7%. Helminthosis, problems of digestive apparatus and poisoning are on the second place among the death reasons. Bison under one year die of traumas, still birth, breakage of an umbilical cord, and absence of mother’s milk.&nbsp;</p> Ekaterina L. Tsibizova Copyright (c) 2009 Ekaterina L. Tsibizova 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 73 79 Selected aspects of adaptations to the parasitism of hair follicle mites (Acari: Demodecidae) from hoofed mammals <p>The Demodecidae are one of the most specialized parasitic arthropods of mammals, so far recorded in representatives of thirteen mammalian order, therein 16 species were described from hoofed mammals. Parasitic adaptations involve size and shape of the body which is elongated, worm-like, providing a specific adaptation to life in hair follicles or in various glands and their ducts. In addition, demodecids show an extreme reduction of a number of morphological characters. Some species show, moreover, certain other, specific adaptations to various microhabitats; those adaptations may, for instance, involve, the shape and size of tagms, the shape and localisation of supracoxal spines, setae on the palps, claws or the presence of the dorsal process on the opisthosoma. Specific modifications have enabled particular species to adapt not just to life in the skin of different mammalian species, but also to the different microhabitats they have colonised there. As a result, particular host species are parasitised by synhospitalic species specific to them, usually differing in their location in the skin.&nbsp;</p> Joanna N. Izdebska Copyright (c) 2009 Joanna N. Izdebska 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 80 88 Difficulties with the choice of proper method for determination the levels of serum of 17S-estradiol (E2) in European bison males <p>The study objective was to compare two methods used to determine serum levels of<br />17S-estradiol (E2) in European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) males: the radioimmunological method (RIA) and the immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). The study material included sera from 101 European bison males aged 2 months – 19 years, which were culled in the autumn and winter periods (in the post-rutting season), in the years 1993–2002, in the Białowiez˙a Primeval Forest. E2 levels were determined using the two methods (RIA and ELISA)<br />in the same animals. The following age groups were distinguished: class I – calves under the age of 1 year, class II –juveniles under the age of 2 years, class III –juveniles under the age of 3, class IV – adult males aged 4–5 years, class V – adult males aged 6–12 years, class VI-old bulls over the age of 12. Using the RIA method to determine serum concentrations of E2 in European bison males, all the values obtained were below the bottom limit for this method. However, the use of the ELISA method revealed serum levels of E2 in all the 101 males. The highest median serum levels of E2 were noted in the youngest European bison from age classes I and II, whereas the lowest in adult bulls (age class V), actively participating in reproduction. However, in the 4–5 -year-old animals (age class IV), sexually mature, but not involved in reproduction due to a lower status in the herd, the median serum level of E2 was nearly twice as high as in the class V bulls. The remaining European bison specimens (juveniles aged 3 years and old bulls over 12) had almost identical median serum levels of E2, the values falling in the middle, between the highest and the lowest median levels observed in the other animals. We found great individual differences in the serum levels of E2 in the respective animals in all the age classes studied. </p> Elżbieta Czykier Copyright (c) 2009 Elżbieta Czykier 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 89 94 Difficulties with the choice of proper method for determination of serum levels of total testosterone (TT) in European bison males <p>The objective of the study was to compare two methods used to determine serum levels of total testosterone (TT) in European bison Bison bonasus (Linnaeus, 1758) males: the radioimmunological method (RIA) and the immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). The study material included sera from 83 European bison males aged 2 months – 19 years, which were culled in the autumn and winter periods (in the post-rutting season), in the years 1993–2002, in the Białowiez˙a Primeval Forest. TT levels were determined using the two methods (RIA and ELISA) in the same animals. The following age groups were distinguished: class I – calves under the age of 1 year, class II –juveniles under the age of 2 years, class III –juveniles under the age of 3, class IV – adult males aged 4–5 years, class V – adult males aged 6–12 years, class VI-old bulls over the age of 12. In our study, serum TT levels measured using the RIA method were lower, higher or similar in comparison with those determined by ELISA in the same animals, although higher concentrations were more frequent when the ELISA method was used. With the RIA method, we obtained 26 results (31.30%) below the bottom limit for this method, i.e. 0.14ng/ml. Included in this number there were 18 animals in class I (56.25%), 6 in class II (37.50%), 1 in class III (14.28%) and 1 in class V (11.11%). The mean serum levels of TT<br>determined by ELISA were higher than those obtained using RIA in the same age classes, the difference being statistically significant in class I and II (p&lt;0.001), and on the border of statistical significance in class IV and VI (p&lt;0.088 and p&lt;0.047, respectively).&nbsp;</p> Elżbieta Czykier Copyright (c) 2009 Elżbieta Czykier 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 1 10 Neospora caninum in European bison in Poland – the current research status <p>The prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum was examined in European bison (<em>Bison bonasus bonasus</em> L.) living in Białowieża, Poland. At first, sera of 62 European bison selected and shot from 2007 to March 2009, different ages and sexes, were tested for <em>N. caninum</em> antibodies using ELISA test. Positive antibody responses were found in 3 bison (prevalence 4.84 %). Additionally, all positive sera were tested by Western blot to verify the ELISA results. The Western blot results confirmed the presence of antibodies to <em>Neospora</em> tachyzoites antigens in all tested ELISA positive sera. Thereafter, 125 sera collected from<br>immobilized bison in 2007–2009 were tested as well. High antibody responses were found in 10 bison (prevalence 8%). Our results strongly indicate the presence of<em> N. caninum</em> in the European bison in Poland. Further researches are needed to evaluate the existence of a sylvatic cycle of <em>N. caninum.</em></p> Władysław Cabaj Justyna Bień Katarzyna Goździk Bożena Moskwa Copyright (c) 2009 Władysław Cabaj, Justyna Bień, Katarzyna Goździk, Bożena Moskwa 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 102 111 Dictyocaulosis of European bison in Białowieża Forest <p>Lung helminthosis also called dictyocaulosis caused by nematodes <em>Dictyocaulus&nbsp;</em><em>viviparus </em>is one of most dangerous parasitoses of European bison. 36 bison in the age of 3 months&nbsp;to the age of 26 years shot during the eliminations in the 2 winter seasons 2007/2008 and&nbsp;2008/2009 were examined for dictyocaulosis presence. Examined bison were divided up 2 age&nbsp;groups: up 2 years (19 animals) and over 2 years (17 animals). Fecal samples were taken directly&nbsp;from rectum. Faeces were examined using Baermann method. Intensity of invasion was defined on&nbsp;the basis of number of first stage larvae of <em>D. viviparus </em>in 5 gram of faeces. Lungs also have been&nbsp;necropsied directly by some sections of them and then the presence of nematodes in bronchi and&nbsp;bronchioles was examined. Altogether 94,4% of examined bison were infected with <em>D. viviparus</em>.&nbsp;Intensity of invasions ranged from 1 to 2730 larvae and mean intensity was 204. In the first age&nbsp;group 100% of animals were infected and intensity of invasion oscillated from 1 to 2730 (mean 426),&nbsp;than in the second age group infected were only 88,2% with intensity from 1 to 276 larvae (mean&nbsp;42). It was observed that the size of the winter herd does not influence the intensity of invasion. It&nbsp;was determined that diagnostics of dictiocaulosis done by using the direct lungs necropsy by some&nbsp;sections of this organ are not precise and the results of this kind of examination are not credible.&nbsp;According to Baermann, the method worth recommendation is examination towards larvoscopy&nbsp;which allows to precisely define prevalence of invasion and intensity of infection. The invasion&nbsp;prevalence of bison caused by the <em>D. viviparus nematodes </em>found in the presented examination is the highest invasion prevalence ever registered among bison in Białowieża Forest. The mean&nbsp;intensity of infection is three to four times higher than in the earlier studies and maximal intensity is&nbsp;several tens higher. The probable reason of such a high prevalence and intensity of this invasion&nbsp;could be the too high density of bison in Białowieża Forest, and as an effect a significant&nbsp;accumulation of invasive larvae of this parasite in the environment. Obtained results allow to&nbsp;suppose that the number of ill and weak calves which should be eliminated will rise soon. So the&nbsp;permanent monitoring of the infected bison with dictiocaulosis in Białowieża Forest is necessary.&nbsp;</p> Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz Anna M. Pyziel Jacek Lachowicz Izabela Kuligowska Copyright (c) 2009 Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz, Anna M. Pyziel, Jacek Lachowicz, Izabela Kuligowska 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 112 118 Enteric coccidia of European bison (Bison bonasus) in Białowiez˙a Primeval Forest <p>During autumn-winter season 2008/2009 26 fecal samples of free-ranging European bison (9 of calves under 1 year old and 17 of older ones) as well as 45 fecal samples of European bison kept in closed reserves in Białowieża Primeval Forest were collected. All samples were examinated by McMaster method. The species of coccidia were determinated based on measurement and morphology of observed oocysts in addition to monograph by Pellerdy. <em>Eimeria bovis</em>, <em>E. zuernii</em>, <em>E. canadensis</em>, <em>E. cylindrica</em>, <em>E. ellipsoidalis</em>, <em>E. alabamensis</em>, <em>E. auburnensis</em> and <em>E. subspherica</em> species were found in feces of free-ranging European bison aged under 1 year. Two species: <em>E. cylindrica</em> and <em>E. subspherica</em> were not noticed in feces of older animals. The mean oocyst count per gram of feces was several to several dozen times higher in calves comparing with older ones. Besides the above-mentioned coccidia species there were two more found in feces of European bison kept in closed reserves (<em>E. bukidnonensis </em>and <em>E. pellita</em>). To conclude the age of European bison has the significant influence on prevalence and intensity of invasion of coccidia as well as the size of their territory. Due to our research European bison was recognized as a new host of <em>E. alabamensis</em>, <em>E. auburnensis</em>, <em>E. </em><em>bukidnonensis</em>, <em>E. cylindrica, E. pellita</em> and <em>E. subspherica</em>.</p> Anna M. Pyziel Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz Copyright (c) 2009 Anna M. Pyziel, Aleksander W. Demiaszkiewicz 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 119 122 80 years of bison restitution in Białowiez˙a Forest <p>After First World War bison survived only in few zoos scattered in several European countries. Thanks to an effort taken by scientists, breeders and a bison restitution program run since 1929 by Białowiez˙a National Park, this species become reintroduced. Since 1952 bison are again roaming in the wilderness. Years 1920–1928 were the only gap period of bison presence in Białowiez˙a Forest. This September we celebrate eightieth anniversary of bison restitution program.</p> Jerzy Dackiewicz Copyright (c) 2009 Jerzy Dackiewicz 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 123 128 Pszczyna’s bison in the Białowieża Primeval Forest and their role in restitution of species <p>European bison Bison bonasus (L.) is one of not numerous animal, they have escaped fate of hundred of thousand species combated so far by man. It occupies exceptional position in kingdom of animals – species saved by man from extinction. European Bison Breeding Center in Białowieża has played particular role in this work – where after 10 years of killing of last wild representative of this species approached for its planned restitution in historic site in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. In process of restoring free population in the Białowieża Primeval Forest participated descendants of 4 Lowland bison which were fetched in year 1865 for Murcki in Upper Silesia. They have played capital role in restitution in the Białowieża Primeval Forest in the years 1929–1966 and saving of this species before all-out extinction. Restitution of free living bison population in the Białowieża Primeval Forest is not in history first. Releasing and breeding of bison in semi-free system in the Pszczyna Forest, which belongs to interpret as relocating of individuals in present captivation of nature protection (Pullin 2005), we can regard as world’s first attempt of restitution of this species in forest ecosystem in modern times, which has been performed 87 years earlier than in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (1952).</p> Jerzy B. Parusel Copyright (c) 2009 Jerzy B. Parusel 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 129 136 The history of European bison herd in Brzegi Dolne <p>The success of European bison restitution in Poland is treated as the very good example of conservation project and gained experience is share all over the Europe. It does not mean that on the way there was no failures as well as mistakes in the process. One of examples is development and collapse of bison population in Forestry Brzegi Dolne in Bieszczady. The European bison herd created in 1978 after 20 year achieved the number of 32 individuals. During five years because of bovine tuberculosis the herd was completely eliminated and now there is no European bison in the region.</p> Ryszard Paszkiewicz Copyright (c) 2009 Ryszard Paszkiewicz 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 137 141 New free-range European bison herd in Zachodniopomorskie voivodship one year after creation <p>Two free-range European bison herds were established in 2008 in Forest Districts Łobez and Dobrzany at a distance of 14 km from each other. After 10 months being separated those herds have merged into one group and occupied the poor wood habitat in the Drava River sandur valley. Those herds left the area of the reach forest habitat of In´ skie Lakeland. The reproduction was very good because among 7 cows probably 5 calves were born and at least three of them survived first 3 months. The monitoring was very hard because of low quality equipment – the Vectronic Aerospace GPS telemetry collars, which operated an average for 4 months from recommended period of 2 years.&nbsp;</p> Jacek Kaliciuk Dariusz Wysocki Andrzej Bereszyński Magda Tracz Maciej Tracz Copyright (c) 2009 Jacek Kaliciuk, Dariusz Wysocki, Andrzej Bereszyński, Magda Tracz, Maciej Tracz 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 142 147 European bison in Russia – past, present and future <p>The area of the European bison during historical time Holocene is discussed with addition of new information published in last years. Northern border of an area corresponds 600 N. The area included average and southern Urals Mountains, the south of Western Siberia. On the east the European bison lived up to the Altay Mountains and Lake Baikal. The same area at a red deer having similar ecological needs. Increase of inbreeding level considerably and negatively influences adaptable and reproductive opportunities of a bison. This circumstance is especially shown in case of its reintroduction in mountain areas. The basic projects on cultivation of the European bison in Russia are discussed.</p> Taras P. Sipko Copyright (c) 2023 Taras P. Sipko 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 148 159 The role of the European bison breeding center in the species restoration in Russia <p>The establishment of European bison breeding centre in the Prioksko-Terrasnyjj reserve was caused by the necessity to preserve one of the most valuable representatives of a wild fauna on the European part of Russia. On the beginning there were many question how to organize reserve to fulfill needs of species preservation. In the first period the priority was to create<br>center for European bison breeding, which assures guard for animals, condition for reproduction and lack of intervention into natural “wild” way of life. The process of captive breeding was needed to reduce the losses of the genetic variability and to develop the European bison population for reintroduction.&nbsp;</p> Natalia Treboganova Copyright (c) 2009 Natalia Treboganova 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 160 164 35 years of keeping and breeding of European Bison (Bison bonasus) at Thüringer Waldzoo Gera <p>The keeping of Bison bonasus bonasus started with a old pair from Zoo Leipzig in 1973 at Thüringer Waldzoo Gera. In 1976 a direct import from Bialowieza Forest brought three young European bison to Gera. This established group bred five offspring. In 1991 the genetic line was changed to the Lowland-Caucasian. More than 30 offspring from this line were born during 18 years. In 2009, after more than 35 years of keeping Bison bonasus, the line was changed back to the Lowland.</p> Jan Bauer Copyright (c) 2009 Jan Bauer 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 165 171 52 Years of European bison breeding on the Wisent-Island in the heart of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern <p>The 52 years history of European bison breeding in the Dammerower Werder reserve was fulfilled with many successes and failures. The paper present the reserve and results of breeding in years 1957–2008. As the successes prevail the breeding center can not only record a steady increase in population, benefiting the restitution of the European bison, but much more – it has been developed into a sought after tourism feature. Since 1957, Wisents or European bison (<em>Bison bonasus</em>) are bred on the Damerower Werder in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The first European bison came as a gift from the Polish government to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). The breeding programme developed successfully. Up to eleven calves see the light of the Wisent-Island every year, 261 individuals were born here until the 31.12 2008.</p> Thomas Kelterborn Fred Zentner Karl Zacharias Copyright (c) 2009 Thomas Kelterborn, Fred Zentner, Karl Zacharias 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 172–181 172–181 Valea Zimbrilor Bison Reserve – a stimulus of local sustainable development <p>The Brasov county has the great advantage of including within its territory two national parks and other areas with great nature value. The Agency for Sustainable Development of Brasov established a bison reserve in Vama Buzaului called «Rezervat¸ia Valea Zimbrilor/Bison Valley Reserve». This reserve plays a important role in development of the county. In November 2008 five European bison were transported to reserve from Switzerland, Italy and Austria. As a proof of good condition within enclosure one female calved this Spring.&nbsp;</p> Mihai Pascu Copyright (c) 2009 Mihai Pascu 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 182–186 182–186 Centre the European Bison Anatomy Research at Department of Morphological Sciences of Faculty Medicine Veterinary WULS in Warsaw – 60 years of duration <p>In 1949 professor Kazimierz Krysiak, as excellent anatomist and an outstanding scientist, created The Centre the European Bison Anatomy Research within the Department of Animal Anatomy at the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW). Over the last 60 years intensive anatomical examination of the species has been the subject of study carried out in the Centre. The results are fundamental for research in areas such as physiology, genetics, breeding, pathology and protection. 124 papers have been published in the field of the European bison’s anatomy. Among those there are 5 postdoctoral dissertations and 17 doctoral thesis. The remaining 102 studies have been published in recognized scientific magazines: both domestic and foreign. Many of them have been created in collaboration with other scientific institutions; mainly with the Institute of Mammal Research Polish Academy of Sciences in Bialowiez˙a. The publications cover all areas of anatomy. Most of them analyze osteological problems. The results of the research carried out in the Centre have significantly improved the knowledge of the European bison’s anatomy in comparison to other species domestic animals.&nbsp;</p> Henryk Kobryń Marta Kupczyńska Copyright (c) 2009 Henryk Kobryń, Marta Kupczyńska 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 187–192 187–192 The role of vessels of male reproduction tract in its regulation in males of not domesticated species <p>The vessels composed the seminal funiculus, perform not only blood function, but they are an active structure in the local concentration of hormones in the area of the reproductive tract. Research performed with the use of males crossbred between wild boar and pig showed that the mechanism back and destinated transfer of testosterone at the area of the<br>reproductive tract exist and change during the winter and the summer. The highest local testosteron concentration is observed during the winter, when appears the reproductive season of them. In the winter-period the concentration of the testosterone in the common carotid artery was 10,16 pg/ml, in testicular artery (margo liber) 21,63 pg/ml, in the artery of epididymis (area of head) 52,35 pg/ ml and in the venous outflow 205,75pg/ ml. In the summer in analogous vessels<br>the concentration of the testosterone in the blood collected from the common carotid artery was 8,08 pg/ ml, in testicular artery (margo liber) 8,37 pg/ ml, in the artery of epididymis (area of head) 15,24 pg/ ml and in the venous outflow 232,92 pg/ ml. Obtained results indicated that during the male reproductive season local concentration of testosterone in area of reproductive tract exists, as a stimulatory factor included in process of spermatogenesis.</p> Anna Tabęcka-Łonczyńska Marek Koziorowski Copyright (c) 2009 Anna Tabęcka-Łonczyńska, Marek Koziorowski 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 193 196 Reintroduction of European bison to semi-natural meadows in Grażyna Valley within the confines of the Rural Areas Development Program for years 2007–2013 <p>Since the population of European bison Bison bonasus (L.1758) was found on the verge of extinction, the protection of this species has become a matter of particular significance in Poland. The protective activities of European bison mainly focus on captive breeding and free-living herds. The planned introduction of European bison to semi-natural meadows in Grażyna Valley (location: Grabin) is supposed to be an element of active protection of nature in the potential area of Nature 2000, located in rural areas, and to support the restoration of this species in our country. The Program of Rural Areas Development for years 2007–2013, taking into consideration the significant role of grazing animals in shaping the&nbsp; andscape, encourages and, in some cases, even puts and obligation to farmers to breed the animals in agricultural holdings. At the same time, the program allows for introducing the European bison. The present program allow year-round grazing of only two breeds of little horses. In order to introduce another grazing species; a farmer must submit a request to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development presenting a breeding program and its justification assuring non violation of animals’ welfare. In view of additional formalities and difficulties connected with them, the Committee Monitoring the Program adopted the resolution no. 22/2009 concerning the changes of the Program, which would bring about possibilities of year-round grazing for all grazing species. However, the introduction of European bison to rural areas (areas of permanent meadows and pastures) with the financial support of the Program of Rural Areas Development requires many documents, starting from the permit for the possession of this protected species. Despite this, it is worth using so as to give European bison a chance of living in conditions similar to the natural ones. Therefore, the Institute of Applied Ecology has decided to carry out such a task in order to prove that it is possible to combine the nature and landscape protection with agricultural activity with concurrent financial support of presently available European Union means. </p> Wojciech Halicki Dagmara Kołeczek Magdalena Twarda-Rafalska Copyright (c) 2009 Wojciech Halicki; Dagmara Kołeczek, Magdalena Twarda-Rafalska 2009-09-01 2009-09-01 2 197–203 197–203